Category Archives: southwest
It is fall and I deleted all my other horehound pictures. drat!
But, horehound is hearty. It has many green leaves still as well as sticky seed pods that orbit between leaf growth on stems. I have been picking up seeds, stuck on my clothes.
Horehound wants to grow other places and maybe I helped deliver some.
One of my favorite places to walk our dog, Fella, is here. Covered with patches of horehound. I have admired the plant for a few years in this beautiful locale, where it grows wild.
I knew it must be horehound although I think it looks less silvery than I have read described, and decidedly more frosted looking.
So, sometimes it takes time to decipher descriptions you read of a plant but, makes it all the more interesting a journey.
Horehound feels fuzzy, like wrinkled, crinkly velveteen. It has these beautiful, crenulate leaves, square stems and beautiful discs of seed pods.
And, it is in the mint family. Although more bitter than minty.
A good bitter for digestion.
I liked the taste though and would like to try horehound beer sometime. A traditional beer.
I always was curious about horehound candy as a child and on Western shows, children were sure to suck on a stick of hard candy, often horehound candy.
My grandmother, mother and aunts would get together around the holidays when I was growing up and make a type of rock or hard candy called beach glass candy. My mom grew up in an ocean town and I always enjoyed the baby food jars or other small jars filled with the bright, snipped bits of multicolored beach glass candy inside. All different flavors. yum.
My life is a little bit homesteading, off grid, work in an herbal shop and slowly I am teaching myself. All about plants, a bit of gardening, jelly and jam making, salt preserving food and bits of old time skills here and there.
I went through a sewing phase a few years back and would really love to find an old time Singer Sewing machine complete with treadle and hand wheel. The original off grid kind. 🙂
I’ve always been fascinated with candy making but haven’t done much. I’ve made chocolate truffles which were a blast and one batch of jelly tasted reminiscent of cotton candy. sugar, sugar sugar to bring it to gel.
But, horehound cough drops are my second attempt to make hard candy a.k.a. herbal candy…cough drops. The first time around I did not use a candy thermometer or the cold water test method so ended up with a taffy like syrup made with elderberries, which was frankly, delicious and gooey, but not hard candy. And, the second time was like a caramel! Maybe my thermometer was touching the side or bottom too much and the reading was off…
So hopefully, 3 times a charm!
With my second attempt, all that foam got downright daunting.
(I’ve read not to stir too much as air can get into the mixture and make it cloud over.) Maybe my pan was not deep enough or I stirred too much as it was foaming to the top so, I scooped some out at the syrup stage, all is not lost. The caramel or taffy consistency cough drops just don’t make it. But the cough syrup I scooped out of that batch is great.
Trial and error with herbs and candy. hard candy making…
guess they don’t call it hard candy for nothing! ha ha ☺
I have found and tried a simple, easy recipe that worked great.
I haven’t bought this much sugar, maybe ever but I had fun making hard candy. Herbal hard candy.
A cooking accomplishment for me.
It works best if you have a thick bottom pot. A thin bottom can scorch your sugar.
A greased baking tray is helpful.
Here is a fairly fool proof recipe:
and art piece ☺
2 Cups white sugar
1/2 Cup strong herbal tea
1 ounce tincture (optional)
powdered sugar to coat candy when done (optional)
3/4 Cup light corn syrup.
A candy thermometer isn’t always foolproof but once I angled it and kept it off the bottom it worked best.
Cold water test:
Also drop mixture when you think it is done in some cold water. If it forms a hard ball it is done. It will be in thread form if not done.
Time to make the Candy a.k.a. cough drops if you like…
They taste good too, and, depending in what you add, room for creativity here!
Pour granulated sugar in pan
Add strained herbal tea and one ounce herbal tincture if you have it.
Whisk together off heat
Then turn on heat to medium using a thick bottomed pan if you can.
Add corn syrup, use wooden spoon
and stir too incorporate.
Don’t stir too much, lower heat if you need to to avoid scorching.
Angle thermometer to avoid hitting the bottom as this throws off the temperature…(yep)
listen to some good music 🎶…. wait a half hour or so, watch pot it can get foamy and unruly.
Eventually thermometer will rise to 300°
Some recipes say to bring it to 305°
but, I found 300° works better, so recommend that.
Add any food grade essential oils for flavor when temp reaches 275° fahrenheit. If adding color, add at this stage as well. Non toxic food coloring can be found too. Be careful of steam/reaction when adding essential oils or colors at these high temperatures. Some colors maintain better when removing heat at 290° but candy may be more sticky at this stage. I haven’t tried adding colors or essential oils since the cayenne, ginger and cinnamon added good flavor. And, I like the amber colored candy.
I tried transfering to a pyrex pitcher but the mixture hardened quickly off heat.
Yay! I broke the code but it was challenging. A helper would be good.
I made depressions in powdered sugar to act as a mold and also greased and lined a pan with a heap of powdered sugar too.
The powdered sugar also helps the mixture not to stick.
And it kind of worked. I broke the lozenges out of the thinner parts of candy. With the other pan I just broke the candy into bite size pieces. fun again!
Eventually I had more success pouring the mixture all at once instead of trying to fill each depression with the hot mixture.
That is where the greased baking tray would come in handy.
In the old fashioned way to break up hard candy, in about an hour just break it with the handle side of a butter knife.
Fun and satisfying.
Coat with powdered sugar by tossing it in a pan lined with the sugar or use a bag with powdered sugar in it and shake, if you want. It’s optional.
I mixed in powdered ginger too.
These cough drops…a.k.a. herbal candy contain many goodies….
grindelia, horehound and thyme tincture, and these herbs in the tea: red root, horehound, cayenne, cinnamon, ginger, thyme, and osha!
sugar sugar sugar how about minus sugar recipes… here goes!
You can also make Sugarfree Lozenges!
Use slippery elm powder as the flour. Or marshmallow root powder. I wasn’t sure if marshmallow root powder would work but it worked great.
Slippery elm is on an herbal watchlist. Due to overharvesting and elm diseases.
An herbal friend has used Siberian Elm that worked well.
Look for cultivated Slippery elm or try marshmallow root powder. It worked well for me too.
Make an herbal tea, strain and
let the tea cool. Licorice tea or other herbs such as red root or osha would work well here.
Add enough tea to form a dough.
Mix and pat the dough into a ball.
Press or roll into shape.
Use small cookie cutters or a bottle cap or just cut strips into small pieces, lozenge size.
Dusted with powdered ginger, soothing to sore throats.
Slippery elm powder mixed with a strained herbal tea made from horehound, licorice, osha, red root.
Have fun with this! You can use the slippery elm as a method to mix lots of herbs.
Consider a happy mood lozenge.
Or a soothing tummy lozenge…
Possibilities are happily endless here.
Slippery elm, alone, has many health benefits: mucilage, soothing to gastric tissues, in combination with licorice can heal ulcers, helps heal mucous membranes -throat, etc.
Slippery elm lozenges are a fun activity to do with kids of all ages!
Try other herbal powders too!
This is the marshmallow root dough
And, the marshmallow lozenges cut into shape.
*A tip for drying lozenges. Mine molded. Even when dried for a few days. I recommend purified water, and drying on lowest setting of an oven til completely dry. Air dry first if you like.
Also honey or tiny amounts of stevia can be added to sweeten.
Lemon balm, elder berry and mints make nice flavor additions to counteract bitter herbs.
Hard Candy Cleanup Tips!
Clean up works best with very hot water. It dissolves the candy. Some people suggest adding vinegar to the hot water. Soap and a scrubby sponge helps. But hot water is the trick.
Careful not to immerse the thermometer into cold water after cooking with it, as it could break!
And the cough drops in a fun, recycled jar.
The herbal hard candy looks metallic but is a deep amber brown topped with powdered sugar and ginger.
They taste mildly spicey too. Not bad for medicine afterall.
And, horehound in a happy autumn field.
Fun with cough drops and lozenges, who knew?
Names: Trementina, Pine Resin, Pine Pitch, Pine
This year the piñon pine trees bore a lot of pinecones. And, last year I gathered jewelled globs of pine pitch resin. I knew there were uses for this resin but the incentive did not inspire me til now to make salve from it. The stickiness of pine pitch daunted me… but, it wasn’t the problem I thought it would be.
First snow of the year and trementina from a nearby piñon tree.
As some of you have read, I wrote a post about pine needle tea. It is high in vitamins C and A and is a fresh lemony tasting tea. It is an accessible tree to many and a health giving, refreshing tea that can be easily foraged.
The Piñon tree is well known for its delicious piñon nuts (pine nuts) which are 15% protein, high in thiamine and oils. Delicious and used in many Southwestern dishes and often used in pestos. Pine nuts are still gathered by local families all over the Southwest as a happy ritual, gathering the plentiful harvest of nuts. And it is a huge economic crop as well. Bumper crops of nuts cycle through every seven years or so and this past fall was such a year.
Picture of ripe cones and nuts below:
Whereas, the immature, female cones can be roasted and are delicious and syrup-y in the center.
Make an easy and delicious syrup.
Gather green pine needles. Chop or grind slightly in a mortar and pestle to release herbal properties. Add to raw honey and keep in a warm place for a few weeks. Strain and now you have an easy made raw honey pine syrup!
The inner bark, or cambium, is sweet and good, cut into strips and boiled like spaghetti. Or the cambium can be dried and ground into a flour and used to thicken stews or added to other flours in recipes.
The piñon pine has been a revered staple for centuries as well as gracing the landscape of countless canyons and foothills in the Southwest and other areas on the fringe.
more piñon info here: PFAF
The pine tree was used by the Aztecs for its herbal uses.
An Aztec Herbal was compiled in 1552 and is definitely something I want to learn more from. Here is an informative site about the Aztec Herbal.
a young tree emerging:
the pitch about pitch…
Pine Pitch/Resin can be made into an all-purpose salve.
The pine tree produces this resin as a protective measure against invasian of insects, bacteria, fungus or injury.
Last years find of resin has dried to a taffy consistency.
I prefer to use resin that has dropped from the tree, rather than scraping some off of the tree.
I feel the tree needs what pitch is on it as a natural defense and protection.
From what I gathered last year,
I flipped the front piece over to show the dirt and debris stuck to the bottom of the resin. The jewelled, amber colored globs have mostly dried. I need to slowly and gently heat the pitch in a pan that I will call my pitch pan. Then I will strain the pitch through a sieve. (the pitch sieve)
I’ve read that the debris will sink and the resin can be cast off and separated. But, only experience will tell! Experience coming up shortly!
According to Michael Moore, herbalist, Pine pitch remedies are:
To take a small, currant sized piece of pitch and chew and swallow it. If expectoration of the lungs is needed, the pitch can help.
This method also softens bronchial mucus.
And, this remedy is especially useful for children.
The pitch can also be disinfectant for urinary tract problems but only when kidney inflammation is not present.
Also, Moore notes that pine needle tea, which is a pleasant tea, has a mild diuretic function and can help expectoration also.
If greater expectoration is needed, boil the inner bark and sweeten the tea with honey.
Trementina salve can also be rubbed on the chest for lung troubles and congestion.
It is a well known and often used remedio to get rid of splinters. If warmed and slathered on, then left to set and adhere, it can bring a splinter to a head and then it can be easily removed. It may cause an increase in inflammation, but this is a productive stage, indicative of the body’s activation response to dislodge the splinter faster.
I enjoy and respect this herbalist’s articles and feel encouraged by her words on using pine pitch as a remedy. Check out Kiva Rose:
With chagrin, Michael Moore talks about using the pine pitch remedy to remove a splinter for the first time. And, says he blistered his skin when he tried this… zoinx!
So, care and technique is the key here.
A salve of pine pitch could help here too. Warmed by sunlight or just as is, since salves are blended with wax and oils, etc.
Repeated applications may be needed to bring a splinter to the surface but this is a trusted method.
I’ve also read that trementina salve can heal boils, bug bites, scrapes, cuts, rashes, and even ease sore and achey muscles.
Pine pitch/Trementina salve I just made. It soaks into the skin nicely and is not sticky at all!
Pine is: antiseptic, diuretic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, and rubefacient… just to list a few properties!
And, I’ve used this soap before. Pine soap!
Recipe to make your own pine tar soap here!
Thanks to the nerdyfarmwife.com!
I did not grow up seeing my elders use and apply trementina salve to soothe scrapes or remove splinters… so, I give my thanks to this tradition and all those this tradition has been a mainstay. And, I am improvising on this remedy. Adding Osha I have heard is traditional and using oil instead of tallow and skipping lanolin, made from sheep’s wool. I have enthusiasm but lack the experience tradition and elders teach us.
But, piñon and juniper are all around me and I feel intimately connected with the landscape. So feel encouraged to craft remedies by hand.
As a child, I could see huge pines swaying outside my bedroom window and felt fear for them during dramatic lightning storms.
I remember playing beneath huge white pines and counting their needles by spelling the word white.
w h i t e, five letters for five needles in a bunch equals white pine. The piñon pine in my area is known as two needle pine so my word game and maybe language would have been different here in the beautiful land of enchantment. Or entrapment if your luck has turned…or sarcasm has taken sway.
I also remember the eventual pine pitch stuck to arms, clothing and hair. Hard to scrub off but now I know that oil helps!
How to make Trementina Salve… Pine Pitch Salve!
1) Gather your own pine resin/pitch
usually plenty on ground below, rather than scraping off tree that needs it
2) let semi-dry like I did, if you want.
It was pretty easy, with oiled hands to remove debris. Brush off surface debris and/or with oiled knife cut or lift debris out of fresher sap. Fully dried trementina may take longer to dissolve, unless powdered… not sure on using fully dried resin.
I have read it takes longer.
3) Add to herbal oil (optional)
Add to oil and sun infuse tiny/small pieces or break up dry resin into small pebble sizes.
Here is the Osha oil I made for the base of the oil. Osha only grows in the Rocky Mountains. It is anti viral and anti microbial. It helps with infections especially good with lung problems. It helps heals wounds and relieves achiness. Quite a revered remedio on its own! Roots infusing in oil.
4) Sun infuse or bury in sand if weather is hot enough to melt resin in the oil… or double boil method… of oil in one pan above another pan filled partway with water. Try not to get water in the oil.
Here is the pine resin/pitch a.k.a. trementina that I cleaned of debris and lightly grated to remove debris. Then I oiled my hands, like for taffy making, and tore off small pieces of the pitch and I oiled the bottom of the pan first too.
5) Because the pine pitch I used was taffy like, it melted in the double boiler heated oil very quickly, I stirred often. Some residue sank to the bottom.
6) For every 8 ounces volume of oil, add approximately 1.5 ounces weight of beeswax… or 1/3 Cup by volume (measuring cup) to the 8 ounces of oil.
7) Melt beeswax completely.
I ended up casting off the oil/wax mixture, leaving any residue at bottom of the pan. But you can use a sieve at this point. (I was going to use a thin cotton dish towel as a sieve, but this was cumbersome for me. Perhaps a helper next time ;))
8) Pour into your jars and voila be proud of the useful, healing salve you made from pine resin from your backyard, favorite woods or even a park nearby.
An alchemical feat and accomplishment! 👑
9) And, use oil to clean out your pans and utensils quickly with a rag or paper towels. This works well if you are quick to not let the pitch set. Use oil to clean your hands of resin too, counters, etc.
Spruce pitch and other resins can be used to make a healing salve.
We also have been having fun using charcoal, to light our incense. You just need a small piece. The resin would probably would make a good fire starter too.
pine resin, a pretty arroyo rock and some incense charcoal above
And, the trementina- pine pitch resin makes a lovely fume of smoke. I enjoy the sweet smell infused with pine and other fragrant notes. It also soothed my headache.
I am fighting off a head cold and the pine resin used as incense was a helpful and pleasant remedy. We even put some pine resin in our tea strainer for a healing tea mixed with osha, red root, thyme and elderberry to soothe our cold. You can even tincture the resin if you want to.
Some other cool folks who work with trementina:
And, sometimes it takes a cold to remember, last months foray into medicinal, herbal vinegar making…
I broke out the fire cider and it really helped! It is spicey and warming.I am using the vinegar with food too and it is great flavor to add in.
Fire cider, pine pitch remedies and pine needle tea do the job!
Good times with pine resin!
Keep me posted on your journey and Trementina Blessings to You.
Now I have the breath of pines in a jar. And so will you!
With gratitude posted links
and this wonderful book by Michael Moore, who never ceases to inspire or amuse.
Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West. by, Michael Moore. Museum of New Mexico Press. Santa Fe, N.M.,
Chunks of resin found on a tree that was chopped down many years ago. Grateful for the resin I found today.
Nettles, Stinging Nettles
Nettles grow wild and can easily be cultivated. I transplanted mine from a thinned out patch from an herbal garden. They went into shock when transplanted and appeared to die. But, once roots took hold, they burst forth with life and vigor.
Nettles grow wild and can form high thickets near streams, rivers, shady areas with rich soil.
our container garden of nettles!
Nearby deer ate most plants in our container pots and also our small amaranth patch. We raised the containers to keep the bunnies and jackrabbits from munching our simple gardens. Our simple fences and dead cholla branches were nothing to stop the deer.
We are getting more acquainted to wildlife habits here. We hear the coyotes often and see juniper berries in their scat.
Owls, crows and hawks reign the skies, on hunts and thermal airwaves.
And, in autumn we are hearing different songbirds, on migration we think.
Last year, a favorite wild, clammy ground cherry, I liked to visit, got eaten down to the ground. I kept getting a message to pick one of the berries in its papery husk, to put it on my alter. I amost felt guilty for doing so, but heeded my intuition and did so.
(a gnawed off stem found on another hike.)
When I returned to visit, and saw the Ground Cherry gone, I understood the message and the temporary nature of all things.
The ground cherry became a much needed meal for a wild desert creature. I marvel at how wildlife exists, struggles and thrives in this desert environment.
And, I recognize the huge bounty I experience. Even if fellow humans might laugh or some acknowledge.
In perspective, to feed a herd of deer was an honor.
We read that deer live in the Ortiz, but hadn’t seen many signs. We live in the desert, canyon foothills. In the piñon and juniper ecozone.
So the hoofprints in dirt tracks along with our dinner salad garden gone, we knew for sure.
During a long weekend away, they ate amaranth, lemon balm, garden sage, catnip and peppermint… makes we wonder if they had good dreams those nights. haha!
Recently, on a hike up into the Ortiz, we saw two deer trotting on a ridge, along with fir trees and tiny groves of aspen on some of the peaks. Amazing to think of their treks for food, water and survival with mountain lions which rove for prey.
we thought this could be a mountain lion track…
In the peaks
In our garden, the two pots of nettles survived along with a mostly dead horehound plant. (the bitter and stinging plants were left behind.)
Which makes this post come alive. I used these fresh, growing nettles, for homemade cheese and pesto, even in fall.
Handled carefully because of stinging hairs on stems and the underside of leaves which can sting you. They are filled with formic acid.
And, I used about 12 tops of these nettles to make my homemade cheese. And, about the same number of tops to make nettle pesto! Both flavored with Herbs de Provence.
Here is the salted nettle tea I made. Add a tablespoon of sea salt to the nettle tea to further extract the nettle rennet properties.
Simmer for 30 minutes. Turn off heat and cover the tea and let sit for 10 minutes. Strain the liquid. It will be a light brown color. This is your Nettle Rennet.
I’ve also read that dried nettles work as an herbal rennet too and dried nettles do not sting!
Use one Cup of the strained, salted nettle tea rennet for a gallon of cow’s milk. This is what I have read.
I had half a gallon and used 3/4 of it.
So, heat the milk slowly.
As it heats add the juice of one fresh lemon and spices.
Just before the milk starts to simmer and bubble, while stirring constantly…
add the one Cup of the Nettle tea Rennet.
In my case it made a big bubble when I added the Nettle Rennet. I stirred it gently and the curds formed instantly. The whey separated and the curds were all on top like the picture. You can see the spices too. I turned off the heat once the curds all formed. It all happened at this point really quickly.
I let the curds and whey sit covered for 30 minutes.
Then I lined a colander with a thin dish towel to strain out the liquid. -(the whey) People sometimes save the whey for cooking other recipes.
I squeezed out the excess whey and the cheese congealed quickly. I let it set for a bit, covered with the cloth.
I took the next pictures of the cheese just a few minutes later. A day later in the refrigerator the consistency was even more like a soft gouda. I was really happy with it. I might salt it a bit next time. I guess I am used to the salt in cheese. But, experiment because I really liked it and the salted nettle rennet may impart the perfect amount of salt for you.
This post by Monica Wilde truly inspires. Check out her recipes using a variety of wild plant rennets.
In Cornwall, a famous cheese from an ancient recipe, called Yarg, involves using nettle rennet and nettle leaves wrapped around the cheese to flavor and cure it. The nettle leaf patterns are beautiful.
not too ironically searches for Yarg brought up pictures of pirates! ha!
More of the present day Yarg story here.
Thistle stamens can be used to make cheese rennet as well. Check out my blogpost and links on how to prepare thistles for food and to use thistles for cheesemaking.
You can also make a delicious pesto using nettles.
Super easy and fun to make Nettle Pesto. I have made pesto so many times, I often wing it but keep some basics in the ingredients too.
For Nettle Pesto, steam the tender stems and leaf tops for 2 minutes.
I then felt the leaves and stems for any sting they might still have and 2 minutes of steaming did the trick.
I dried them off with a towel then added olive oil, garlic cloves, juice of one lemon and hulled hemp seeds instead of cheese.
Plus, spices and herbs that suited my fancy at the moment.
Blend it up and voila!
I really liked this pesto and the rest of my cheese as a simple dinner.
I saved most of the pesto to add to tomorrow’s soup as a garnish.
The Herbal Goodness of Nettles!
Deb Soule, Herbalist and Biodynamic gardener and plant enthusiast lists Nettles as one of her favorite herbs.
In her book: The Roots of Healing.,
She describes many of nettles virtues and for being
a wonderful fresh green at the close of winter and turn of spring in Maine.
I enlist the many healing properties from Deb Soule’s book here, amidst a few other notes.
Stinging Nettles, just the name can turn some people away. The hairs on the stems and the underside of leaves can be quite formidable. The hairs contain formic acid which can cause painful stings when you touch the hairs of the plant.
This painful sting, is used in urtication therapy.… Urtication derives from nettles, its botanical name: Urtica dioica
Nettle Sting therapy:
Many people have taken nettle leaves/stems of leaves and hit or rubbed them on painful arthritic joints and areas. This brings a rush of blood to the area with subsequently less inflammation, relieving the pain.
Many people swear by this method since the pain from the nettles is temporary compared to the relief they feel within their arthritic joints.
If you get stung by nettles and need to relieve the pain, crushed/bruised plantain leaves or yellow dock leaves, placed on the sting, make an effective remedy.
Nettles are high in iron and greatly help those who are anemic. Steam new tops of nettle leaves or make a tea from fresh or dried nettles. Fresh leaves made into a tincture work best.
Nettles are vitamin and mineral rich so are a tremendous health ally.
Nettles are an excellent tonic for the kidneys and adrenals. In many cases, regular use of nettle tea or tincture can reduce the risk of kidney stones.
Nettles also nourish the liver and blood. And, improves elasticity of veins, helpful for hemorrhoids or varicose veins.
Nettles also strengthens the plasma membrane/outer membrane of cells… making them less vulnerable to inflammation and allergic response.
Nettles work very well in Menopause formulas. Especially when added to these herbs: oatstraw, red raspberry leaves, borage leaves, and siberian ginseng (eleuthero root)
Does your dog scratch and dig at hot itchy spots on his skin? A nettles wash can help.
Likewise, nettles is good in formulas for eczema and skin problems.
The astringent nature of nettles lessens: nosebleeds, uterine hemorrhages and bleeding from cuts.
Drinking cool nettle tea decreases inflammation in kidneys and bladder.
Nettle teas and tinctures have been shown to decrease painful conditions like arthritis and rheumatism for people and animals.
Nettles are commonly used to decrease allergies.
Deb Soule also suggests to let fresh and/or dried nettles to sit over night in a glass jar/pot, of cool or room temperature water, to extract the most vitamins and minerals from nettles.
Drink this health rich tea as is or gently heat and then steep for 15-20 minutes.
For many health benefits and as remedy, 1-3 cups of nettle tea a day for several weeks or months is recommended.
Please seek good counsel outside of this post to determine the best course for you.
And nettles greens, cooked or steamed can be eaten as often as you delight in. lucky us!
Include wise stories and counsel from plant wise friends and from Nettles themselves!
Posted Links with gratitude
and this book:
The Roots of Healing. A Woman’s Book of Herbs. by, Deb Soule. Carol Publishing Group, 1995.
And, what else did I do today? Learned to use a chainsaw to harvest our own wood. Sawing dead trees by hand last year is something I will never forget.
Here’s to You and all You Inspire!
Yarrow in the glory of late summer.
But, now It is fall. And some Yarrow remains in bloom but not all.
In this post, I will show Yarrow growing in tidal grasses near the ocean, in New England meadows and two different mountain ranges of New Mexico.
Yarrow is part of an old Gypsy remedy to fight colds and I will discuss that here. Also, Yarrow is a traditional healer whose use spans centuries.
In the herbal and foraging world trademarking is taking place on who can sell age old remedies. But can age old remedies truly be trademarked?
I believe that the spirit of age old remedies is to be shared by all.
I will share a much loved remedy for making fire cider. That is in trademark controversy right now. But, part of blogging is to share my passion for plants and foodways. So thankyou for taking this journey with me.
And happy wellness to you and yours!
And, I never realized til yesterday that Aspen leaves can also turn red amidst all the golden yellow leaves of fall. Red aspen leaves and the recognizable gold.
Much of the Yarrow but, not all has gone to seed. It is the third week of fall. I love to depict Yarrow in its various growth phases so you will see that posted here. Plus that is how I first identified yarrow. When it was dried on the stem past fall.
I have been searching for a yarrow story to tell. One of my own.
On a recent trip to New England, leaving New Mexico, I thought I would miss the blooms of yarrow in the mountains.
My first trip to the ocean back east and in the tidal grasses of the beach I saw Yarrow… I got to see it bloom afterall.
(Yarrow has feathery leaves. In this photo, covered by other grasses and leaves of nearby plants.)
(Basal leaves are larger than this stem leaf and first year’s growth will show these feathery leaves growing in patches. (more photos in post)
Sometimes yarrow is confused with Queen Anne’s Lace which has one umbel per stem. Yarrow has many varied florets that cluster to the top. Side view photos of Yarrow will show that.
At the ocean, Yarrow grew along with Queen Anne’s Lace and nearby beach roses and rosehips.
Queen Anne’s Lace above
And, a few yards away from the Yarrow and Queen Anne’s Lace were the beach roses and rosehips.
For an ally it surely seems and has been, all over the world for centuries.
Achilles, who Yarrow is named after, was a Greek warrior and was said to have been dipped in yarrow. (an herbal yarrow bath?) He was held by the heel by his mother. As the story goes, the only unprotected part of him was his heel that did not get dipped in the yarrow.
He was eventually slain by an arrow through his heel.
(I used to run and my track coach always warned us to take care of our Achilles heel as it is a weak spot right above the back of your ankles…)
Achilles used yarrow to staunch the bleeding of his soldiers wounds. It was used in the Civil War for that purpose. And many avid hikers, outdoors people, foragers and herbalists, young and old alike, know this to be true… that yarrow staunches the flow of blood from wounds.
Indeed, the ground up dried flowers and leaves make a very effective styptic powder to curb the bleeding of minor cuts and wounds.
A small vial of the powder makes a handy item for your first aid kit.
Rosemary Gladstar, Herbalist, explains how:
“Sprinkle a small amount of the styptic powder directly on an open wound to slow the bleeding.
To stop a nosebleed, sprinkle a small amount of powder on the inside of the nostril that’s bleeding. The powder will usually slow or stop the flow of blood within minutes.
You can also take powdered yarrow internally to help stop the flow of blood. Stir 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon of the powdered yarrow (or yarrow tincture, if you have it handy) into a small amount of water and drink it down.”
I filled an 8 ounce jar with dried Yarrow flowers and leaves. I plan on grinding the leftover dried flowers and leaves, minus the stems, for my own styptic powder for my first aid kit.
I dried these in a paper bag. Another way is to gather a few stems together and dry upside down. When the stem breaks and snaps cleanly, the herb is dry.
Keep out of direct sunlight and make sure there is airflow. You want to preserve as much of the color and fragrance, a.k.a. volatile oils and healing properties.
Also Gladstar lists major healing
herbal constituents of the versatile yarrow:
linalool, pinene, thujone, camphor, azulene, chamazulene, proazulene, beta-carotene, vitamin C,
vitamin E and flavanoids.
Yarrow is generally considered safe but can stimulate uterine muscles so is safest to avoid during pregnancy, especially early stages…
*Although it is often used at childbirth to facilitate labor and to stop excessive bleeding.
Yarrow is part of the Aster family, the hugely abundant Aster plant family. People with sensitivity to chamomile or other plants in this family may develop itchy eyes or a rash with yarrow also.
Other Uses of Yarrow:
(photo from my garden)
As described by R. Gladstar,
C. Hobbs, L. Gardner, M. Moore and J. Green:
Yarrow is: astringent, anti-septic, vulnerary, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, anti-spasmodic, styptic/hemostatic, vaso-dilating, and bitter-promoting digestion.
No wonder one of its nicknames is: cure-all
Yarrow helps relieve:
-menstrual cramping, use yarrow before period starts and during to prevent/lessen cramping
-excessive menses or when menses is slow to come
-relieve fever by increasing it slightly, to make fever more effective, decreasing length of fever
-helps normalize inflamed and irritated states of the digestive tract
-eases symptoms of cold and flu
-eases painful stomach and digestion
-aids in poor fat absorption
-its vaso-dilating and diuretic function aids in hypertension
-when body needs diuretic function
-fresh root tincture helps sore teeth and gums
Yarrow leaves makes a good green in salads. I recently enjoyed some fresh green yarrow leaves as an herb with my hiking lunch of baguette and hunk of swiss cheese.
And, I have been enjoying using a tablespoon or so of dried flowers and stem leaves in my stir-fries along with coriander and other spices.
I will probably make a broth of yarrow and ginger etc., for a spicey yarrow root soup. Have you tried a yarrow broth for soups. The tea is so aromatic and woodsy. I love it!
Try a little of the herb and adjust by taste from there.
Another trip up the mountains before it gets too icy or cold to do so. Although snowshoe-ing in the Sandias was fun in the spring!
It was a crisp fall day in the Sandias. I improvised and used my funky hat as a foraging bag. I couldn’t resist when I saw all the vibrant, feathery yarrow greens growing everywhere!
I am happy about the Yarrow leaf tincture I made. But, it could use a top off of brandy. So, off to get more. It is funny all the times I have bought brandy at a liquor store for making herbal tinctures. The few times I have mentioned it to clerks or owners of these places they have often looked at me with a smirk on their face. And often will say: okay ma’am… have a safe day out there. Funny, I like to think I am spreading the word about herbal remedies and plant and foraging magic out there, albeit in my own quirky way.
The best brandy run was the day the woman behind the counter said that was the best use for brandy, with herbs. friends, we find each other!
I hadn’t intended on harvesting Yarrow. But, at the very start of my hike, I spotted a forgotten bloom, picked and abandoned by a fellow human.
I picked it up and carefully put it in my pocket. A reminder of yarrow as ally and that I have much to learn from this beautiful, flowering plant, so present in the mountains surrounding where I live.
(the discarded bloom of yarrow above)
I noticed the small stem of flowers on a rock whose color pattern strongly resembled the flower. I picked up the small stem of Yarrow flowers and this led me, not to abandon, but to continue my exploration and story-journey of Yarrow.
It seems I have been intending to write a post about Yarrow for some time.
This was the nod and reminder I needed.
Yarrow nudging me to take its path.
A humble yet powerful plant.
aptly named: Cure-All
Herbal Beer and Wine:
Yarrow has a longstanding use as food and as a beer and wine beverage!
Yarrow was traditionally used instead of hops in beer and was said to induce a mild elating effect as compared to using hops!
It also makes a good herbal wine.
I found this recipe, along with other wine recipes, online.
I haven’t tried it yet but, it is on my, can’t wait to try it list. Looking forward to Yarrow’s blooms, next
mid-summer and early fall.
This recipe by Ernestina Parziale has many good herbal and fruit wine recipes.
Yarrow Wine Ingredients:
2 to 3 oz dried yarrow flowers
2 lemons, quartered
2 oranges, quartered
3 lbs sugar
1 gallon water
½ oz baker’s yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast
I’ve read wine yeast makes a less cloudy wine.
Place all ingredients (except sugar, yeast and water) into a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the contents of the crock. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily and covering immediately again. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Place the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation ceases.
Yarrow wine sounds interesting and good along with the other flavors of orange and lemon.
Yarrow also makes a good digestive bitter, either alone or mixed with other bitter herbs such as gentian root, dandelion leaf, etc.
I have made a yarrow leaf tincture for the purpose as a digestive aid.
I made it as a single tincture, since it is good for digestion and has many uses. Including its good use as a remedy for bleeding, inside or out, bruises, injuries, etc.
Yarrow Preparation Uses:
Yarrow can be made into:
a healing infusion, as a therapeutic bath for bruises and muscle soreness and/or cramps; as a tincture; medicated oil; a compress for bruisings and bleeding; and also as a salve or lotion.
Yarrow as part of a formula for ulcers can relieve inflammation. Also as a formula for relieving urinary tract infections, yarrow can serve an anti-inflammatory role.
Also, yarrow has diuretic properties which assists the clearing of a U.T.I. infection.
I have also read that Yarrow has mild mood enhancing properties.
Try it and let me know what you think. Herbal teas generally help me feel better, and affect my mood in a positive way because when I feel better my mood follows too! 🙂
Yarrow is an old time remedy for flu and colds. It is traditionally paired with peppermint and elder flowers.
This is a traditional remedy. And I want to share it. I just learned of it a few years ago. I am a late bloomer, like Yarrow that blooms throughout late summer into fall. Some plants past gone from the season next to vibrant blooms just begun in the fall.
A time tested, remedy…centuries old, passed down in families, by neighbors and friends, gardeners and gatherers…
Yarrow leaves and flowers, along with peppermint and elder flowers helps your body fight illness. This tea is immune enhancing and diaphoretic, helping your body sweat out impurities and illness.
Rosemary Gladstar calls this her
Gypsy Cold Care
Deer from the nearby Ortiz mountains ate my peppermint, lucky them!
So, I bought the peppermint and elder flower from the herb store I work at and added some of the dried yarrow I harvested recently.
Now I have my own Gypsy Cold Care formula. Writing this blog today I have been drinking it throughout the day to feel better.
For better healing effects drink smaller amounts… a quarter cup per hour while healing a cold or flu.
Gypsy Cold Care formula, passed on in the herbal tradition. A Gypsy Herbal cold and flu care formula that a well known and loved Herbal teacher and writer has passed on to her readers. And from me to you and back again. We can all learn and share so much with each other.
And, I am sure so many of you out there have your own tried and true recipes and remedies. Kitchen medicine!
Goldenrod and Yarrow above
I had some helpers making this Fire Cider 😉
Fire Cider is based on an old time remedy use of vinegar. Vinegar, in this case, apple cider vinegar, extracts many healing and delicious qualities from herbs and vegetables.
Herbal vinegar was recommended by Hippocrates and many apple cider remedies have been popular over the years.
Rosemary Gladstar has published and shared what has become a very popular healing, spicey vinegar. It is known as fire cider. A fun name for a spicey, healing cider that really knocks out a sinus infection or cold or flu.
It is currently under trademark controversy by a small herbal company that claims to have invented it. That wouldn’t be such an issue except they have trademarked a popular name for a traditional remedy, the name, Fire Cider, itself. Claiming sole proprietory ownership over a common herbal remedy. That means people who sell Fire Cider at farmer’s markets, herb shops, co-ops, etsy shops are getting sued. That would be like sueing someone for making and selling products by name, such as: elderberry syrup or horehound cough drops or the like.
People have been traditionally making, sharing, caring, bartering, gifting and selling these remedies for a longstanding time.
I wanted to inform people on what is going on because trademarks have their place. But, not when herbal traditions are being co-opted and bargained out of existence… in my opinion, anyway.
Here is a link to learn more and get involved if you want to. Plus there are more fire cider and remedy recipes in this link to enjoy.
This is based on Rosemary’s recipe and this is how I made my own Fire Cider.
-Peel and Chop/Grate one fresh Horseradish root.
-Coarse chop one onion
-Chop 4 or 5 garlic cloves or per taste per jar
-add couple dashes of cayenne per jar
-top off with Raw apple cider vinegar. (avoid white vinegar)
one Tablespoon chopper yarrow leaf and flower(optional)
I made two jars about 16 ounces each.
That’s it! let cure for 4 weeks, otherwise the veggies get too mushy. Strain it and add raw honey, just a bit to sweeten. Heat vinegar to warm, to help honey to blend best. But, not too hot as to kill the raw properties of vinegar and honey.
Also, the vinegar and veggies can be made into a delicious chutney.
Check out the recipe in the free fire cider link above.
Take a shot glass to fight off a sinus infection. Or use with food. Be inventive, let me know what you tried!
All my raw, chopped veggies…. ready for the vinegar!
And, more of the lovely Yarrow, in many stages of growth cuz I love them all!
Posted links and these book sources:
Medicinal Herbs. A Beginner’s Guide.
by Rosemary Gladstar, Storey Publishing. North Adams, MA., 2012.
Grow it Heal It. by Christopher Hobbs and Leslie Gardner, Rodale Books, N, Y., New York, 2013.
The Herbal Medicine Makers Handbook., by James Green, Crossing Press, Berkeley, CA., 2002.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West., by Michael Moore, University of New Mexico Press., Santa Fe, NM., 2003
May Yarrow find its journey along your path as well.
and admiring last Summer’s dried golden blooms overlooking a cliff of the Sandia Mountains.
Goldenrod flower buds and blooms
Habitat: Roadsides, meadows, disturbed areas, also in mountains
40-60 species alone, grow in North America.
I always appreciated the sunny spread of blooms, especially in the meadows behind my grandparent’s house.
I grew up, as many of us did, hearing that Goldenrod caused hayfever. This is a myth as it has sticky pollen, pollinated by insects…and not airborne by the wind.
Ironically it helps reduce allergic response and can be used as a remedy for seasonal allergies.
Goldenrod growing in the Sandia mountains of New Mexico.
And, the Goldenrod that I found growing in New England.
The golden rod with its fiery, golden blooms
Reminds me of the suit of wands in the tarot deck.
And, I adore this image!
She is Goldenrod incarnate!
Can be purchased at Polyvore.com
Artist: Cabaret Voltaire
golden wands of fiery, passionate light. The New Mexico mountain blooms shown in this post, smell infused of honey. One species, Solidago odora, (not shown) the leaves and flowers smell like anise.
Here is the goldenrod infused oil, that I made in New England. It started out on my parents front doorstep. Infusing away, during sunny days. Then before my flight home, infusing amidst jars of tinctures I made…in a box…along its sundry postal trip… to the rural post office 8 miles from where I live. Gleefully, I pick up my herbal remedy delivery, that I collected and made myself…
Not finished solar infusing yet…, onto the bumper of the camper, we call home.
There, on the sunny bumper ledge, infusing by sunny day, starlight and …moon phases…herbal oil infusion journeys with radiances of summer heat and light in North central New Mexico.
Goldenrod oil can help heal wounds, especially those that need a cooling and stimulating action to heal. I like to make salves out of my herbal oils.
Goldenrod mixed with plantain makes a good remedy for stings and skin irritations.
newer growth with flower rays
and narrow leaved plantain, a little beat up from lawnmowers next to a highway… but narrow leaved plantain, nonetheless!
Also, Goldenrod has a longstanding and effective use in relieving sore and achey muscles.
So does nearby growing Snakeweed, also in the Asteraceae family.
Snakeweed below, I’ve talked about it before… an age old respected remedio, for arthrits and achiness, here in New Mexico.
Dry wilt your fresh herbs for, at least, a day before infusing oil.
Double boil slowly to infuse the goodness of all the goldenrod properties…
Or try, as many of you already do, solar infusing.
My first experience along with making carrot seed oil.
Quite a pleasure to infuse oils by the sun, lunar and starry skies.
Goldenrod blossoms make excellent fritters. Similar to Elderberry blossom fritters.
The tender leaves can be cooked as a green.
You can use the Solidago odora, with licorice/anise scented leaves to make an herbal tea jelly.
This type of Goldenrod has translucent dots on its leaves when held to the sun. This imparts the leaves with the anise flavor.
When Colonists dumped British tea in the harbor, this delicious spice tea was an ingredient in what became known as Liberty tea.
Make your own Liberty Tea Blend and define liberty as it relates to you!
Use equal parts of Sweet Goldenrod (anise flavored species described)
Betony, Red Clover, and New Jersey tea…(also known as Red Root) species name: Ceanothus americanus.
New Jersey tea tastes a great deal like green tea.
Can’t wait to mix up a blend of this health giving, tasty tea!
Long before liberty tea, Native Americans used the Solidago odora, as a medicinal and as a flavoring in medicinals.
This oil, extracted from the leaves and flowers, has also been used in perfumery.
This is giving me good ideas for making hydrosols. You can make your own simple still for hydrosol making. See the Herbal Medicine Maker’s Handbook. by James Green
Habitat: Solidago odora grows in open sandy soil throughout the eastern U.S and midwest, south and through southeast Texas.
Other varieties of Goldenrod can be used to make a jelly too.
Here is a recipe:
(2 Cups fresh plant and 4 Cups water. Boil water, take off heat and add herb, steep for 10-30 minutes.)
If using dried goldenrod use half amount of herb.
Take just 1 Cup of the Goldenrod tea
add 2 Tablespoons pectin.
Heat tea and pectin and bring to a roiling boil.
Add 3/4 Cup sugar all at once.
Stir and boil 1-3 minutes until it passes the jelly test.
Pour into jelly jars.
If using species other than the Solidago odora, consider adding a 1/2 tsp of anise or other flavoring… or just as is.
The rest of the tea can be used as an iced or hot tea. Maybe with some lemon and sweetener to make an herbal lemonade! Customize your own yummy drink blend 🙂
Goldenrod has a long history of use around the world as an Herbal Medicine!
Nicholas Culpeper, a 17th century, English herbalist, describes in his book that Goldenrod is ruled by the planet Venus. Here depicted is the birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli, 1486., one of my favorite paintings.
According to Culpeper, Solidago fragrans, “It is a balsamic vulnerary (wound/skin healing herb, also for)…hurts and bruises…a safe diuretic; few things exceed it in the gravel, stone in the reins and kidneys (and kidney stones with pain and soreness… also with) bloody or purulent urine; then its balsamic healing virtues co-operate with its diuretic quality, and the parts at the same time are cleansed and healed.”
Also, he states that it is an excellent wound healer, inside and out.
Also, it helps to “stay the immoderate flux of womens’ courses, ruptures, ulcers in the mouth or throat…” and in preparations as a wash for venereal disease.
A tea of young leaves, fresh or dry, he recommends for these healing purposes.
Also, he states that Solidago angustifolia, as a decoction and rinse, helps set loose teeth.
More cited herbal uses:
According to the excellent website by Plants for a Future., the common species,Solidago canadensis, is excellent for kidney problems, allergies due to its quercetin constituents, its root can make an effective poultice for burns, flowers and buds chewed and swallowed soothe sore throats, saponins of the plant are specifically anti-fungal against candida overgrowth, and more uses described in link above.
Specifically, it is described as being:
antiseptic, hemostatic, febrifuge, kidney remedy, styptic and useful salve.
Matthew Wood, p.p. 468-470, An Earthwise Herbal., states the uses of Goldenrod, specifically Solidago canadensis, and S. virga-aurea.
Properties of Herb:
“The root, leaf and flower… are predominately bitter and pungent…(with) traditional use as a carminative” and digestive aid.
It is aromatic and contains essential oils which aids in allergies… also quercetin does, and especially helps with carryovers of lung distress with bronchitis that remains as a factor.
He describes it as a good stimulant to kidney function as a remedy after stressful situations or even psychological events.
Susun Weed suggests making a healthfilled Goldenrod herbal vinegar! Vinegar extracts many wonderful herbal properties and can be used every day in food preparations…talk about gourmet salad dressings and dipping sauces, marinades!
Wood, also describes an affinity that goldenrod has for healing scalp irritations and scabs as well as leg wounds. And, leg wounds particularly because of its healing effects on kidneys.
-For being tired and worn out, can’t process issues that life brings.
-allergies, conjuctiva, specifically useful for cat allergies
-acne in sheets of small pimples on face
-cold stomach, inactive digestion
-edema, swelling, dry scaly skin
-purulent conditions of lungs, mucosa, skin,
-exhausted and tired lower back, tired feet, tired worn out kidneys,
-dark scanty urine
-early bladder irritation
-edema and purulent sores on legs
-dry scaly patches- scalp and legs
-old, inflamed purulent wounds, gangrenous wounds.
Harvest leaves in fall and tincture fresh in alcohol.
*Check field guides for native species near you. It can resemble some species of senecio, and other look a likes… And, it is in that vast plant family, Asteraceae… that I had trouble keying out less common species.
So, I presented more characteristic species here. Asteraceae, yellow rayed species no less, what a workout!
Dosage: 1-3 drops, 1-3x a day.
For allergies, my Medical herbalist friend suggests to try 30 drops a day, 3 times a day… if drop dosage above does not yield effective responses.
I do want to learn more about drop dosages.
Caution: Goldenrod can heal conjuctivitis but, if excess of drop dose above is taken, (1-3 drops per day…) can cause conjuctivitis!
Can heal or cause conjunctivitis.
I respect this powerful and gracious healer. Goldenrod!
Thankyou Matthhew Wood for your compehensive knowledge and view!
I am grateful for all references in this post and am interested in Your Uses of Goldenrod too. Please feel free to share your experiences with Goldenrod if you would like to!
Goldenrod makes colorful dyes!
Harvest from more common species and strong stands…or from your own herb garden of Goldenrod.
For Yellow to Gold dye: use flowers and flower buds, alum or chrome as a mordant; simmer or solar dye
For orange dye: use flowers and buds, a tin mordant; simmer the dye
For a tan dye: use leaves, alum mordant; and solar dye
for an olive dye: use leaves, a copper mordant; and solar dye
for a gray dye: use leaves or flowers, an iron mordant: and solar dye
Wanting to add some color to the vibrant hue of goldenrod and all its story, I have briefly touched upon…
I wanted to share some poetry I found, highlighting Goldenrod in the first line.
It was written by a woman who was a classmate of Emily Dickinson and a friend of Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Helen Hunt Jackson’s poem:
The golden-rod is yellow;
The corn is turning brown;
The trees in apple orchards
With fruit are bending down.
The gentian’s bluest fringes
Are curling in the sun;
In dusty pods the milkweed
Its hidden silk has spun
The sedges flaunt their harvest,
In every meadow nook;
And asters by the brook-side
Make asters in the brook,
From dewey lanes at morning
The grapes’ sweet odors rise;
At noon the roads all flutter
with yellow butterflies.
By all these lovely tokens
September days are here,
With summer’s best of weather,
And autumn’s best of cheer.
But none of all this beauty
Which floods the earth and air
Is unto me the secret
Which makes September fair.
‘T is a thing which I remember
To name it thrills me yet:
One day of one September
I never can forget.
by, Helen Hunt Jackson
She also became an activist in the 1800’s. She lived from 1830-1885.
She was especially moved when she went to hear a lecture in Boston, as part of a 4 year lecture tour by the Ponca Chief Standing Bear.
Standing Bear and his wife Susette Primeau and their son.
He argued against the cruel treatment of his people that were forcibly moved from Nebraska to Oklahoma territory. Up to one third of all people died due to starvation, disease and illness. They were moved too late in the year to plant crops and were denied promised goods and agricultural equipment.
Chief Standing Bear also sued in U.S. District Court, in 1879, that all Native Americans are “persons within the meaning of the law and have the right of habeus corpus.”
On May 12, 1879, Judge Elmer S. Dundy, ruled in agreement of Native Americans existing in right of habeus corpus. He stated that the federal government had failed to show a basis under law for the Poncas’ arrest and captivity.
This was a landmark case legally for Native American rights.
The case was called:
United Stated ex. rel. Standing Bear v. Crook. Crook was the General holding Standing Bear and his people under law control.
After this ruling, Standing Bear and his followers were freed by army release and given a return of lands restored to them in the Niobrara valley of Nebraska. A state park and many other tributes are in honor of Standing Bear and his achievements.
After the lecture, Helen Hunt Jackson sent everyone in congress a copy of her book: A Century of Dishonor. It described and detailed the deplorable action of the U.S. government against Native Americans. The book exposed the U.S. government’s violations of treaties and gross misconduct and harm against American Indian tribes. She also got involved in Mexican Native rights in California and this resulted in tourism and interest in the area based on her novel Ramona.
She was a prolific writer and activist, who eventually moved to Southern California from Massachusetts.
Helen Hunt Jackson, poet and activist.
Little did I know how much history I would learn from looking up this sweet poem about Goldenrod and the time of September.
A poem, that was popular to recite at the turn of last century, by schoolchildren.
Goldenrod, Queen of Wands, a golden spectacle of fields and roadsides, open areas in mountains and meadows.
A healer to kidneys, U.T.I.’s, sore muscles, wounds, and more.
A wonderful natural dye.
Mistaken for an allergen but actually a cure!
The Anise scented Goldenrod once imported to China as tea.
Goldenrod, good to get to know you.
For many years to come!
Bibliography, including posted links and sources:
Nicholas Culpeper, Culpeper’s Complete Herbal.
Edible and Useful Plants of the Southwest., by Delena Tull.
An Earthwise Herbal., by Matthew Wood
this species: Oenothera hookeri
I like the name.
Yellow Evening Primrose
Habitat: Sea Level to 9,000 feet. It is common in mountainous areas of the U.S.
It also grows along streams, fallow fields, watersheds, roadsides, wet areas.
Evening Primrose in New Mexico.
According to Michael Moore, Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West.,
The Root can be chopped fresh or dried, covered with twice its volume in honey. Boil this slowly. It makes a soothing and somewhat antispasmodic cough syrup.
The top of the plant can also be used similarly.
Some laxative effect
Can suppress skeletal and smooth muscle pain, in particular: the reproductive organs.
Evening Primrose is variable in its effects due to particular affinities a person may have with the plant. Effects differ also according to species and habitat.
It is recommended to try it, since some people respond particularly well. And it is a fairly common plant and does well in gardens. It may even pop up as a volunteer as it has at my workplace’s herbal garden.
One to Three teaspoons of the root or leaf in tea.
The seeds are highly nutritious and contain amidst other things: linoleic acid and varying amounts if gamma-linoleic acid. (GLA)
When the seed capsules open at the top you can tip the branch and the capsules will release seeds into your container.
Michael Moore, herbalist, suggests to grind the seeds and add to flaxseed oil. Keep cold/refrigerated or just grind what is needed at a time.
Evening Primrose Oil contained in the seeds has many touted health benefits for autoimmune disorders such as: eczema, psoriasis, scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis.
For some people, the plant’s overall positive effect on organs such as liver, spleen, and musculo-skeletal systems helps people feel better, thus is mood/state of being enhancing.
The whole plant is edible. The roots are peppery and like a turnip/parsnip when raw. Often boiled.
Young leaves best, do have hairs. Good as a potherb.
Seeds are edible, see above.
The flowers have a mild cucumber taste. We found them delicious and very pleasant tasting.
Fun to read about, exciting to find!
Evening primrose… A plant I have been hoping to find. I found it this year. My friend, in Massachusetts, has some in her garden and I spotted some on a favorite mental health and nature enjoyment walk.
My father died recently and I flew home, by wings of an airplane, to visit him, help with his hospice care and be with family. From the base of the Ortiz mountains to a suburban town, southwest of Boston, Massachusetts.
10 miles from the ocean.
This area, charming by means of cranberry bogs and small New England ponds. Grass lawns, woods, occasional spots of enclosed meadow flowers. And a fire access lane filled with wildflowers, milkweeds, wild blueberries, huckleberries and Evening Primrose!
Along a humble path- access lane (divine to me) that was a 5 minute walk from my parents home.
While my father was in the hospital, before or after visiting him there, I would often walk here or to the nearby pond for a few minutes.
And John’s Pond, with cranberry bogs across the way.
a diary style picture of myself, at the pond, in the lifesaving chair…early in the day before families arrived to play and swim.
My dad was clean, re-positioned, comfortable and loved. Final days of hospice care at home. These short walks, the equivalent time of a brief bath or shower, really saved me. And was not understood by everyone.
Before my dad came home for hospice care, and in the between times of waiting to visit him at the hospital… in New England,
I wildcrafted herbs.
And did I ever!
I even found an Elderberry tree in a recess and dip in the woods, a few yards away from my parents house. The irony did not escape me. Elder.
I got a lot of satisfaction, too, harvesting plantain from my parents’ lawn.
New England, where I turned the experience of loss into healing.
On so many levels. As we all do.
I did it in a way that brought me relief, joy and sanity. Making Herbal tinctures, salves, herbal oils and herbal tea jellies and wild berry jellies.
I shared the jellies (made jellies for the first time) and showed family how to make medicated herbal salves… which we also used on my father for the arthritis in his neck and back.
The nature spirits guided me and helped me cope.
I was so happy to find Evening Primrose in New England which brought my search full circle to my original home.
I feel that plants choose their times of alliance in the wild and gardens. And, I am grateful.
Thankyou to this New England Evening Primrose!
Imagine my happiness and joy when returning to New Mexico, shortly after my father’s funeral, I found Evening Primrose growing in wild stretches near the lake dam I was camping at. Nature spirits truly divined a magical experience!
Near the fields of Evening Primroses, I also saw bear tracks. A mother bear with her cubs. Truly awe inspiring!
Thankyou for taking this plant and animal track journey with me. Plants as allies through all of our experiences. And, Evening Primrose led me to the Majestic Mama bear and her cubs.
And, my bountiful tincture!
tincture where you are
Sources: Posted Website links
and this book source specifically:
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West. by Michael Moore, Nuseum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe. 2003.
And, the beautiful desert primrose I found this year alongside desert roads…
The Cholla cactus used to be considered in the same genus as the Prickly Pear cactus but now is in its own genus.
There are different types of cholla but I harvested Cholla buds from the fuschia flowered cholla growing all around where I live.
It is commonly called cane cholla.
Cholla grows primarily in the Southwest U.S. it has been naturalized in parts of Australia, where it is known as Devil cane.
Cholla flower buds are high in soluble fiber and have more calcium in two tablespoons than a glass of milk. Many people are lactose intolerant or have digestive issues with dairy or allergies. So plant sources of calcium make a lot of sense!
Cholla flower buds are an excellent plant source of calcium.
And here is a bit more health focus about Cholla flower buds which are high in soluble fiber as well as calcium. Also a good amount of iron. Protein is 6 grams per serving!
Soluble fiber….what is it good for?
“… Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, can help lower glucose levels as well as help lower blood cholesterol. Foods with soluble fiber include oatmeal, nuts, beans, lentils, apples, blueberries.” ………
…….And Cholla Flower Buds!
Cholla flower buds are eaten for taste but also to stave off osteoporosis and help with diabetes and blood sugar management.
I admit there have been times I have looked out at vast fields of Cholla growing with wonderment. But, also a sense of overwhelm. The desert is gorgeous but tough to live in. Now I feel more connected to Cholla. Not only as a prolific and adapted cactus but as an amazing food source. With all your thorns and abilities to thrive in the high desert, I presently call home… you beautify my life with your flowers, thorns and silouhette against blue skies and storms, Cholla.
You nourish me.
You drew me near.
With respect and tongs 🙂
I need songs…
I gathered from your spiney stems.
6 Cholla flower buds to add green bounty to my beans.
In my tanktop and cutoff jeans.
Sweat pouring from my forehead. I took a break from domestic tasks, and various mind chatter.
You nourish me.
Cholla, called me near.
And the ants…
Ants thrive here too.
And were called by Cholla to survive, thrive.
I am just one human surrounded by dozens of Cholla and countless ants swarming for nectar.
Grateful for the green I have for my supper
More meanderings than poetry but I think you know what I mean.
Twice today, I have heard of the importance of singing to plants. And, for the tradition, of so many traditional peoples of the world, who sing to plants… when growing them, foraging, connecting with, and making plant medicine. 🍃🎵
Cholla flower buds are a traditional food of many Pueblo peoples.
Buckthorn Cholla grows near the Tohono O’odham people although most if not all cholla flower buds are said to be edible.
The Hopi people, the Tohono O’odham, still gather Ciolum, Cholla flower buds, for a delicious and health giving food source.
The next link features a woman singing to Ciolim. She talks about coyote. How coyote will be upset. Because she got up early to harvest the wonderful Ciolim.
Or maybe someone sleeps late. Coyote is happy to get the Ciolim early in the morning.
Ciolim helps balance blood sugar.
The woman in the video says that leaving traditional foods behind has caused health problems. Returning with respect to these foods can help restore health balance. And she is one of many, who each year, respect and forage Ciolim.
It is often boiled after removing spines by rubbing against metal screens or colanders. I burned the cactus spines and fine sharp hairs, called glochids, off with my small stove. Then I boiled the buds for 15 minutes. They do taste a bit like asparagus. They are Okra like. Though, I personally like them better.
Of course, fried… could be really yummy too. With a dipping sauce. Maybe some Sumac spice in the batter?
Local foods and spices. Fine dining foraging style!
Here is a recipe I found that is simple and looks good.
Be sure to de-spine the cactus. Both the longer spines and barely visible glochid spines. I burned mine off, then boiled the buds for 15 minutes.
-De-spine Cholla flower buds and/or new growth stem joints.
-Make a batter of Cornmeal, whole wheat flour or other flour, salt & pepper, spices
-Roll pieces in batter and fry in oil
There are still a lot of cholla buds near me. I would like to try this recipe.
Also, you can de-spine them, boil for 15 minutes then dry/dehydrate them for future use.
My father, when he came to visit me, cut a stem of Cholla and replanted it when he got home. They re-plant really easily. Just let the stem piece scar over for a few days. Then stick it in soil. It should take to re-planting easily.
Would you like to grow your own Cholla from seed? Check out this great site. And, you can buy a jar of Cholla buds too!
Also a wonderful site above of empowerment and community for the Tohono O’odham.
Also today I heard this podcast from Mountain Rose Herbs. Rosemary Gladstar talks about many wonderful things including connecting to plants through song.
And listen to her community herbal song ❤
Funny, I was so happy in my garden this morning, I was singing to my plants, before I learned of these songs and traditions today.
Here is some fencing we made by dragging branches of dead cholla over to protect our container garden.
A beautiful flute song.
A Hopi Corn Planting Song based on traditional music.
Played and recorded by Eddy Herier.
The dead cholla makes a beautiful wood skeleton which is often used as a walking cane or ceremonially, and religious use. Also in art.
Here is the remnant of some of that beautiful cholla skeketon.
Thankyou Cholla for making my skeleton strong.
Sources include posted sites and:
Edible and Useful Plants of the Southwest. by Telena Dull,
University of Texas Press. Austin, 1987.
Sumac grows all over the world and is used as a spice, food, a tea and herbal medicine.
It grows in Africa, Europe, the Middle East and North America.
It also can be landscaped into many environments.
It has many uses. Check out this site!
Make a delicious, popular Middle Eastern spice using ground sumac berries. Why not forage or garden your own. Dry the berries then grind for a spice!
This wonderful spice mixture is called Za’atar.
Get the recipe here!
Three Leaf Sumac
Same family as cashews and mangoes!
Common Names: Three Leaf Sumac,
Basketbush, Sumac, Lemonade-bush
Foothills, canyons, slopes, usually dry rocky soil, usually on limestone outcrops.
Sunny locations, perhaps dappled shade. Not frost tender. Drought resistant, often used in landscaping.
The up to 6 foot high, rounded shrub, multi branched …when in new growth is supple and more upright when it grows.
When dried these stalks made good strong arrows for Pueblo peoples.
The leaves come in threes with small yellow flowers emerging before the leaves come out.
The fruit when it emerges is like a berry. Starting greenish tan and become orange-red to red in color, with sticky glandular hairs that give the fruit a fuzzy appearance.
The red fuzzy berries make a wonderful lemonade like beverage.
The berries are soaked in cold or hot (not boiling hot) to make a beverage. A little honey or sweetener can be nice since it is very sour. I liked it unsweetened myself. But, however you prepare it, it is cooling and refreshing on a hot day, like a lemonade or prickly pear fruit beverage.
Some people like to call this lemony, sumac drink Rhusade.
Or Rhusade is soothing and nourishing, as a hot beverage, on a winter day as a hot tea.
Per serving, steep a rounded tablespoon of the fresh or dried berries until it meets your fancy.
Don’t bring water to boiling as this brings out the tannins and makes it too astringent as a beverage.
The Rhus trilobata berries can also be added to salads, sandwiches, perhaps sauerkraut?
Throw in some juniper berries into your sauerkraut too. They are traditional.
Be inventive and avoid boiling the berries is my only suggestion.
In Michael Moore’s, Medicinal Plants of the Canyon West., he suggests and indicates 3 leaf Sumac’s uses:
Gather leaves when green.
Gather the berries when they are fully red in summer also when leaves are green or a bit red.
The leaves turn a splendid red in fall. The tree is deciduous.
The dried leaves last a year. The dried berries last 2-3 years.
The leaves can be used in powdered form and a quick salve made with castorlatum from castor oil. It has a petroleum jelly like consistency yet not petroleum based, a plus! Or if your coconut oil is still solid at room temperature try that… or the same with ghee.
Stir 1 part powdered leaves into 2 parts castorlatum gel. *
For a glycerine tincture, macerate 1 part by weight of powdered leaves in 5 parts by volume of a half water & half glycerine menstruum for the tincture. Leave for four weeks. Then shake and strain*
Moore states that the powdered leaves, quick salve and glycerine tinctures are excellent for mucosal-epithelial sores. Such as: lips, mouth membranes, genitals, and nostril membranes. The actions are to soothe and shrink inflamed tissues and to mildly disinfect.
Powdered leaves are very soothing to mouth sores on nursing infants.
*Preparation method is important here, such as with quick salve method and glycerine tincture. Heating and alcohol tincture could pull out too many tannins.
Sumac is originally an Arabic word.
And Rhus, the Genus name, is derived from a Greek word meaning to flow. So named due to its properties in stopping flow of blood, this case with hemorrhages. It is hemostatic. Proper methods and use are critical.
3 Leaf Sumac looks similar to POISON OAK!
Poison Oak is not actually an oak species. It is in the Sumac family too… Anacardiaceae
The leaves of both are lobed.
The next picture is of Poison Oak.
It also turns red in the fall.
Whereas, 3 Leaf Sumac has a velvety texture on the TOPSIDE as well as underneath.
Poison Oak is fuzzy UNDERNEATH the leaf only, shiny on top..
Also, poison oak has non fuzzy whitish-green berries.
Poison oak can cause severe contact dermatitis and further injury if trees are burned and smoke is inhaled.
Three Leaf Sumac
Berries not ripe yet
Research your local species of Sumac. The berries are the easiest way to determine if it is safe. The safe species have red fuzzy berries like the Rhus trilobata here.
3 Leaf Sumac berries makes a wonderful lemony drink!
When I lived on the East Coast I enjoyed making a lemony tea from the Staghorn Sumac. I was in my early twenties then and felt a little bit leery about Sumac. I grew up with caution about Poison Sumac that grew in the swamps. And New England has its fair share of swampy areas in the woods.
One season, I and others, worked as Interpreters, in beige uniform, alongside coworkers of many different Native American backgrounds, including Wampanoag. I am grateful to my friends who taught me so much about Wampanoag customs and culture. Including the use of local plants, such as Staghorn Sumac berries. I even filled in a few times and gave guided nature trail talks, pointing out useful and edible plants. It is fun to piece together these experiences since the plant world is an everyday ally to me now.
A Wampanoag perspective on history and Thanksgiving.
Rhus typhina…Staghorn sumac
Further Herbal medicinal, food and other traditional, global uses of edible/medicinal Sumac, including Native American… just some of the info I found!
Learn to identify the safe Sumacs in your area. This means positively identifying possible poisinous look alikes, in the same family, such as Poison Sumac, Poison Oak, and Poison Ivy.
It brings that old song to mind….maybe I can find it on youtube.
Here it is!
Edible/Medicinal Sumac is: astringent, antipruritic, analgesic, contraceptive (for males,) deoderant, diuretic, emetic, hemostatic, odontalgic, oxytoxic
-tanning leather, dyeing wool, etc.
*-Dyeing hair black/dark…a decoction of boiled leaves (I want to try!….also Globe mallow decoction makes for a fine dark rinse for hair.)
-Added to meat helps deter stomach upset (bacteria on meat?)
-Leaves made into poultice with vinegar or honey stops the spread of gangrene
-Seeds pounded and mixed with honey help with hemorrhoids
-The gummy sap when applied to a tooth eases pain
-The leaf and root helps a woman expel the placenta (there is a description and method of preparation in book cited below.)
-helps stop internal bleeding
-helps with dropsy
-Helps with diseased gums
-Helps with freezing/frostbite or burns
-helpful with some venereal disease with application
-leaf added to tobacco mixes
-sumac helps with: dysentery, fevers, rhematism, dysuria, diahrrea, skin ulcers
-Seeds make oil for lighting or tallow like oil can be made into a candle.
-Decoction of bark and berries for sore throat
-aids in female urinary incontinence
-vermifuge in mixture with other herbs
-leaves rubbed on your skin make for a Bug and Snake repellant
-Root used as deoderant and buds used as perfume
Sumac species may vary in given properties and effects.
*NATURAL HAIR DYE FORMULA USING LEAVES, BARK ETC… equals 👧 😄❤
natural hair dyes including fun colors!
Will keep you posted, I am curious myself how to use 3 Leaf Sumac leaves as a darkening hair rinse.
I made a boiled decoction of fresh leaves, then added apple cider vinegar with success. My hair became a darker tinted shade. 👧
Perhaps dried, powdered leaves made into a paste would further darken my hair. But, I like it!
Haha my gardening hands! While I wait for my hair rinse to finish!
Above, Globe Mallow is used as a traditional dark coloring for hair.
I also want to try black walnut hulls and garden sage… known to darken hair and garden sage is good at covering grey.
The 3 Leaf Sumac branches are used to make basketry and dyes for decorations on baskets too.
Jemez Pueblo people still use Sumac branches in their basketry.
***Beware of POISON SUMAC, POISON IVY and POISON OAK!
This post is mainly a description of 3 leaf sumac…Rhus trilobata.
Only the red, fuzzy berries of Sumacs are edible. Some species may cause contact dermatitis and Poison Sumac should be avoided! It is not included in Sumac’s healing effects. And it is highly toxic!
Here is a botanical sketch of Poison Sumac.
Note the similarity to other Sumacs and also note the whitish berries. The berries are green in spring and not fuzzy. A strong distinguishing feature from the fuzzy red berries of the edible sumacs!
formerly classified as Rhus Genus
In addition to posted links:
Use of Plants. For the Past 500 Years.by Charlotte Erichsen-Brown, Breezy Creeks Press. Ontario. Canada, 1979.
Wild Plants of the Pueblo Province. by Dunmire & Tierney, Museum of New Mexico Press. Santa Fe, NM, 1995.
Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West. by Michael Moore, Museum of New Mexico Press. Santa Fe, NM, 1989.
Culpeper’s Complete Herbal. by Nicholas Culpeper, W. Foulsham & CO., London, England.
The Globe artichoke goes by two botanical names. Some believe the *Cardoon and Globe artichoke are the same. See below.
Artichokes are Thistles!
or Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus
Common Herbal Name: Artichoke leaf, Cynara
Plant name: Globe artichoke
Plant name: *Cardoon
Ancestor to modern artichoke
And the local thistle near me …. in the thistle family like the cardoon and the artichoke….
New Mexico thistle
Yishdloh or Azee in Navajo
Cardillo (little thistle,) Cardo in Spanish
Nickname: Lavender Thistle. Desert thistle, Powder puff thistle
USDA info on New Mexico Purple Thistle
The thistles known as Carduus by ancient healers such as Pliny, etc.
I enjoy making local connections with plants. In this case, thistles! This New Mexican thistle was also used medicinally and for food by Navajo, Hopi and other peoples.
-as food-raw, peeled stems,
-cold infusion of plant-for an overall remedy when feeling sick,
-and cold infusion of root used as eyewash for eye diseases, irritations
Find out if local thistles in your area are edible and/or medicinal.
They might not be safe as food or medicine.
Research, ask questions, take a friend or knowledgeable person with you. You can always enjoy them as a beautiful wildflower.
Harvest with respect for future stands and if only a few are around, just enjoy. My local thistle makes pollinator friends very happy.
We owe gratitude to the peoples and traditions for centuries old plant wisdom that carries forth today.
This gratitude also extends around the globe… all the many people. As Rosemary Gladstar has pointed out, The plant world existed long before us.
This mural at the community Herb store where I work gives a heartening reminder to me.
and plants as medicine.
The plant kingdom, plants and trees are our elders. Teachers. Allies. The very air we breathe comes from plants and trees.
Happy sigh here.
People working with plants as allies and healers, food medicine, foodways, wild plant foodways and herbs… family/community gardens.
And, sharing what we know and have learned through our own uses and experiences. Bringing the elders and children together.
My local thistles… in my locale
How about you?
I am taking an herbal preparations course and it is fun. What I love also are all the great tidbits I am learning along the way. And this particular Herbal preparation class gave me the nudge to learn more about thistles.
In our section, learning to make medicinal wines…I found out that artichoke leaves… that grow around the globe of the artichoke…
are very healing and restorative to the liver. Hence the “love to the liver” part. 😀
Artichokes are thistles!
I like seeing the whole artichoke plant. I had no idea they could get so leafy and the artichokes look small in comparison.
Image source and further nutritional and medicinal information:
Plants for a Future
In class we used a sweet white wine. Cut or tear the fresh Globe artichoke leaf into small pieces and fill a jar. (not jam packed but full) Then completely cover the leaf parts with the sweet, white wine.
There, now you can have your wine and help your liver too!
Let this tincture or infusion sit for 5 days. You can shake it each day too. Remember to infuse your good energy into it!
I liked the taste of the sweet white wine and artichoke leaf.
I took a small bit of the unused leaves home and tinctured it in red wine, since I had it available and it was already open.
Here’s my medicinal wine infusing… I finished off an open bottle of red.
Re-use jars! I have protected the medicinal wine with plastic because of the metal lid.
Sidenote: On day 3, I strained and pressed out the artichoke leaf from the red Syrah. Hoo-wee! It is a healing BITTER. I vouch for a sweet white wine next time!
I really enjoyed learning about the globe artichoke leaves. I've never grown them….it points out to me, how great gardening is. To be able to see all of the plant. And, to connect more with plants and with gratitude, enjoy the food. And, to discover, pass on and guide each other on what food plants also yield medicine. As already happens in many places today. And for us newcomers and rememberers.. a resurgence and carrying forth our appreciation… of the plant world as our allies and healers.
What a healer artichokes are. Many Foods have medicinal properties too. And, many healing traditions and modern practice suggests healing with foods as a first step for health maintenance.
In Ayurveda the artichoke herb is known as Hatichu or Hattichoke.
The vegetable taste qualities are sweet and astringent.
The artichoke leaf is bitter, which stimulates liver function.
It combines well with Arjuna.
And, it also makes a great tea. It is popular in Vietnam and is called Tra Atiso.
An apertif, made from artichoke and other herbs, is common after meals to stimulate digestion. A popular brand is called Cynar, made in Italy.
Now more specific info about the healing properties of artichoke leaves.
“‘How it works
“Artichoke-leaf extract improves the liver’s eliminative function,” says Amelia Hirota, D.Ac., Dipl. C.H., an acupuncturist, herbalist, and clinician at Center of Balance in East Greenwich, R.I. The acid components in the extract stimulate production of bile, (cholagogue.)
(The bile acts as) a detergentlike fluid responsible for transporting toxins out of the liver and into the intestines for excretion. Bile is also essential for the body’s breakdown of fats and cholesterol, and the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, such as A, D, E, and K.'”
Also artichoke leaf constituents and uses are as follows:
Extracts from artichoke leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of dyspeptic and hepatic disorders… also specifically: obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatitis, diabetes, liver tonic, relieves symptoms of IBS-Irritable Bowel Syndrome, etc.
Removes heat and dampness in the liver.
Primary constituents are: chlorogenic acid, cynarin, caffeic acid and flavonoids (e.g. luteolin-7-O-glucoside) which are the main phenolic constituents of artichoke leaf extract (ALE).
***Caution with Biliary Obstruction and gallstones, etc.***
Also, being a coffee and black tea enthusiast myself…. in my Herbal studies, I have learned to avoid taking herbal remedies of any kind with coffee or black tea. Because, it will inhibit the herb due to tannins.
Wait a couple hours after drinking coffee or black tea.
Or take your herbal tea or herb remedy, at least, an hour before coffee or black tea.
That way you can let the herb benefit you ☺
Above quoted source:
And for Foragers out there and other interested folk…
The Globe artichoke originally came from a wild thistle.
Cardoons make a lovely food too! Traditionally the de-thorned stalks are used. That gives me some good ideas for preparing my local thistles like cardoons. Hmmm, it’s got me inspired and thinking!
How do I prepare my local edible thistle or cardoon?
Navaresse method of preparing Cardoons.
Cardoons can be used as a vegetable rennet. Some Portuguese and Spanish cheeses are made this way.
Also many people around the world are using plants to curdle milk to make cheese. I’ve made cottage cheese using lemons.
Check out this lively and informative, how-to blog, on how to use dried cardoon thistle stamens (the purple part) to make yummy cheese!
More fun for vegetarian cheese makers!
Here are some recipes that may inspire you and have fun with!
And baked Cardoons, thistle stalks too!
Me in thistle bliss
Rio Grande Cottonwood
Populus deltoides var. wislizeni/
Related to Willows.
Aspens and Balsam Poplars can be used similarly.
Warnings and Indications:
***Be cautious when giving salicylate containing herbs, or aspirin for that matter, to children and teens. Even, in some cases adults may be susceptible to ill effects of salicylates, i.e. in aspirin or herbs as well as children and teens.
It may be rare,… but the possibility exists, that cottonwood preparations and herbal medicines from other trees in the Salicaceae family… could cause Reye’s syndrome. An often fatal disease.
Medicinal Uses according to Michael Moore:
All the Populus species
contain varying amounts of salicin…which aspirin comes from.
Also: Do not combine use of Salicylates with Anti-Coagulants.***
The Populus species are useful whenever an anti-inflammatory and/or pain remedy is needed.
Gather leaf buds in early spring, leaves in the summer, portions of inner bark in late fall or spring.
Learn best methods for harvesting bark from live trees unless fresh, fallen branches are available.
Aspen branches have thin outer bark and are easier to work with. Wind and storms provide a bountiful supply of branches.
Fallen, fresh branches make for good harvesting of leaves too if fresh and green.
I have learned that fallen branches near river banks are a way for cottonwoods to start nrw growth.
Also according to herbalist Michael Moore, medicinal uses include:
For a healing tea, the inner bark is most effective.
Although, leaf preparations (which are palatably less bitter) and milder, can yield healing results.
The leaf buds, ones which are balsamic and aromatic, when soaked in oil, make an excellent application for burns and skin irritations.
A folk remedy, the balm of Gilead, is this healing oil. Or a salve can be made with this herbal oil and beeswax melted together.
For a softer salve slowly melt 1 ounce (28 grams) beeswax per 8 ounces (236 ml) warmed, herbal oil, using a double boiler.
For a firmer salve use 1.5 ounces (42 grams) beeswax per 8 ounces (236 ml) of herbal oil.
Or use the strained herbal oil as is.
Burns may require a softer salve, for more comfortable application…and/or seek professional consult.
When tinctured, the leafbuds provide an excellent expectorant for thick unmoving bronchial mucous. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties can soothe the lung conditions as well.
(Incidentally, I found this wonderful cream recipe online. The basic recipe was developed by Rosemary Gladstar, who I would love to study from someday. At least, stock up on her wonderful books.)
Rosalee de la Foret, in her post about making cream says she uses Cottonwood leafbud tincture as a preservative. And, I wanted to share that here:)
The fresh or dried Cottonwood plant material makes excellent poultices and fomentations for swollen joints, muscle aches and pains, and sprains.
A New Mexico herbalist, I admire writes a beautiful and informative post about riparian habitat and what Cottonwoods need to bring new growth to the river areas. Check out this post by Herbalist, community educator and environmentalist, Dara Saville.
Dara Saville is also doing plant restoration work on the Rio Grande Bosque. You can support her efforts at albuquerqueherbalism.com.
Above is the Rio Grande, Cottonwoods and other trees.
A cool, shade place to enjoy
There are many varied beautiful or interesting and powerfull Native American stories that I have found in researching the beautiful Cottonwood tree.
For indeed, when you snap a fallen, dried branch, you will find a star inside. *
The Hidatsa, Native American people revered the Cottonwood trees.
According to the Hidatsa…
“the shade of the cottonwood… is supposed to possess an intelligence that may, if properly approached, help in certain undertakings… It was considered wrong to cut down one of these great trees. When large logs were needed, only the fallen ones were used. Some elders say many of the misfortunes of the people are the result of their disregard for the rights of the cottonwood… (Matthews, 1877, p.48)”
This next story is so beautiful and is a Cheyenne and Arapaho story about all the fallen branches and their stars within. And, how they return with the right blessings and circumstance to the night sky.
Story found in starlab.com
AND THE STARS
From the Plains Indians: Cheyenne and Arapaho
All things come from Mother-earth.
Stars are no exception. They form secretly in the earth and then drift along just under the
surface until they find the roots of the magical Cottonwood tree.
They enter the roots and slowly work their way up through the tree. Finally they come to
rest in the small twigs at the end of the branches. Here they wait patiently until they are
Then, when the “Spirit-of-the-Night-Sky” decides she needs more beautiful stars to light
up the heavens, she calls on the Wind-Spirit to help her. The Spirit-of-the-Wind sends
his blustery gusts in all directions. Soon the wind shakes the magical cottonwood trees so
hard that the twigs begin to break off. Then, as each twig breaks away, the stars are
released; and even more escape when the twigs break again as they hit the ground. Now
new stars race up into the night-sky where each one is carefully put into a special place.
Now, when the Spirit-of-the-Night-Sky has enough new stars, she tells the Wind-Spirit to
stop; and the wind settles down to a gentle night breeze. Of course, the Spirit-of-the-
Night-Sky wants to thank the Wind-Spirit for his help so she asks all the new stars to
twinkle brightly for him. This way the Wind-Spirit can see where all the new stars he
helped escape have been placed.
So, if you want to add a new star to the Night-sky, gather some Cottonwood Star twigs
and snap a few to make sure you have good ones. Then wait for a clear night.
When your special night comes, find a spot where you can see lots of stars. Hold your
twig up toward the night sky and snap it. After you snap, check the ends of your twig to
see if you have a star pattern showing. If you do, then you have put a new star in the sky.
The star pattern is the shadow that the new star leaves behind.
Look up at the night sky again, and if you look very carefully, in the same direction that
you released your new star, your will see it twinkling brightly. This is your ‘thank-you’
for the Spirit-of-the-Night Sky, for adding a beautiful new star to her heavenly kingdom.
It turns out Joni Mitchell, singer/songwriter, artist, is right….
The cottonwood trees often lose branches when the winds are heavy. You can harvest inner bark, leaves or leafbuds from these branches.
I found a large branch with still fresh, newly emerged leaves on their stems. The leaves felt moist and resinous. I took it as a large gift and offering. I even had my mason jar and brandy with me. I was thinking I would make a flower essence as flowers are blooming this late April.
I am so glad I heeded the message to bring my supplies. In reading Michael Moore’s book: Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West., I knew that Cottonwoods had great herbal medicinal value. So, with this learning I felt awe and respect when I found the Cottonwood branch on the ground near the Jemez river where i was enjoying my hike.
Jemez range and the Cottonwoods which like to grow near rivers and streams.
I felt so fortunate to harvest the still, fresh and potent leaves.
I gave thanks to the tree and branches and leaves and made my herbal medicine right there.
I covered leaves with 40% Brandy.
The tincture should be ready in a month. A few weeks later, I added aspen tree buds. My friend was experiencing extremely painful hamstring spasms which kept her awake at night.
I gave her some cottonwood leaf and aspen bud tincture for pain and the pain was completely relieved within five minutes.
This tincture works very well for acute conditions.
For chronic pain conditions, for example- arthritis, I have read that a formula of pain relieving herbs works well. For example, black cohosh, cottonwood buds and devil’s claw for arthritis, etc.
With my gratitude and offering, I felt so blessed to make such an effective, pain relieving, anti-inflammatory, herbal medicine…
Many Native American peoples have used and still use the Cottonwood trees for a variety of purposes. Cottonwood trees grow near streams and rivers. We owe gratitude to all the people before us who have developed herbal medicine benefits and uses.
Cottonwoods when they die, reveal centers that have often rotted. The insides can be more easily hollowed out and the good wood makes excellent drums. Many Pueblo people have expertise in this craft.
The dense but soft roots of cottonwoods are used to carve the Puebloan, sacred Kachinas.
The catkins, the drooping flower buds, were often eaten as a first spring food by various Pueblo people.
I’d like to forage some catkins.
One source I found states that poplar/aspen… perhaps cottonwood leaves taste like spinach. So many edible, wild plants are compared to spinach, in taste, it makes me smile. I haven’t tried the leaves as food. If you have tried them let me know!
I am so grateful for my Cottonwood journey. I learned so much and feel happy, inspired by this change. A change, by new learning and for what the Cottonwood offers. What it has always offered by showing us and all creatures, life giving water which it grows nearby.
Its many uses, including healing uses, as a food and its relationship as a sacred tree.
I am grateful and reminded of the timeless beauty of the Cottonwood and its ready branches of stars.
And, when I take a journey to learn about one plant or tree….other plants join in to make their hellos and introductions. And re-introductions. Almost as an invite, as ally, to learn more.
Now is the time.
So, with that, I saw my first Apache plume flower today. Having seen the seed plumes last year, I had missed these happy rose like flowers.
And the beautiful, vibrant globe mallows.
Thankyou for taking this star blazed trail with me. Happy wise foraging and wildcrafting to you.
Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West. by Michael Moore, Museum of New Mexico Press. Santa Fe, NM. 2003.
Wild Plants of the Pueblo Province.by Tierney & Dunmire, Museum of New Mexico Press. Santa Fe, NM. 1995.
and a field of Cottonwood seed fluff!
In the fall young cottonwoods rustle their leaves in the wind.